Survivors were often forced to remain in servitude beyond the contracted period.
The coolies who worked on the sugar plantations in Cuba and in the guano beds of the Chincha Islands (the islands of Hell) of Peru were treated brutally.
Those who ran estates believed that Chinese and Japanese Coolies were harder working, united, and clean.
Indian Coolies, on the other hand, were viewed as dirty and were treated as children who required constant supervision.
However, many Chinese laborers worked in British colonies such as Singapore, Jamaica, British Guiana (now Guyana), British Malaya, Trinidad and Tobago, British Honduras (now Belize) - as well as in the Dutch colonies within the Dutch East Indies, and Suriname.
The first shipment of Chinese labourers was to the British colony of Trinidad in 1806.
The Chinese government also made efforts to secure the well-being of their nation's workers, with representations being made to relevant governments around the world.
Workers from China were mainly transported to work in Peru and Cuba.
As the British government had political and legal responsibility for many of the ports involved - including Amoy - such ports were immediately closed.Labour-intensive industries, such as cotton and sugar plantations, mines and railway construction, in the colonies were left without a cheap source of manpower.As a consequence, a large-scale slavery-like trade in Asian (primarily Indian and Chinese) indentured labourers began in the 1820s to fill this vacuum.In 2000, the parliament of South Africa enacted the Promotion of Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, which has among its primary objectives the prevention of hate speech terms such as coolie (koelie).Social and political pressure led to the abolition of the slave trade throughout the British Empire in 1807, with other European nations following suit.